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Matcha: A Timeless Tradition

Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. Emperor Sh’eng Nung of China is believed to be first man to have sipped a cup of tea, in about the year 2737 BCE. Monks spread the practice of drinking tea throughout the Orient, revering its ability to help them stay alert during their long periods of prayer and meditation. Today, green tea is the most popular tea drunk in China, and has been used for its health benefits since the second millennium BCE.


Contents


    Mysterious Origins & "The Way of Tea"

    When and how green tea was introduced to Japan is shrouded in myth and legend, but it was being used as medicine by the 8th century CE and by Buddhist monks in meditation by the 9th century CE. However, it was not until the 16th century CE when Sen-no Rikyu consolidated “the way of tea” in Japanese culture. The way of tea, or chanoyu, incorporates poetry, ritual, and philosophy into Japanese tea culture and set the standards that are still observed today in Japanese tea ceremonies.

    From Plant to Tea: Producing Matcha

    Matcha is powdered green tea, produced by pulverizing the leaves from the camellia sinensis tea plant. The plant is kept in the shade for 20 days before harvesting, which reduces photosynthesis and thereby increases levels of theanine, the amino acid that contributes to unique taste and pharmacological effects of matcha. After harvest, the leaves are steamed and then air dried to produce tencha, the raw material that is then ground into matcha green tea powder.

    Ancient Wisdom, Modern Science

    Modern science has corroborated the medical properties that ancient physician’s ascribed to green tea. The polyphenols found in green tea have been found to be responsible for many of these health benefits, which include cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular disease, liver disease, osteoporosis, and protection against bacterial and viral infection. The method of preparation used for matcha green tea has been shown to produce among the highest levels of polyphenols found in green tea (Komes et al., 2010) and high levels of theanine.

    Theanine

    Theanine is an amide found in the camellia sinensis tea plant. Theanine is synthesized in the roots of the plant before it is stored in the leaves, where it accumulates and is eventually extracted in the tea production process. An essential component for both the taste and health benefits of green tea, theanine is a core determinant of quality and is in greater abundance in matcha green tea compared to many other green teas due to differences in cultivation methods. Theanine contributes to matcha green tea’s many health benefits. For a comprehensive review of theanine’s many particular health benefits, please see Cooper [1] or Liang and colleagues [2].

    Preparation and Polyphenols

    Polyphenols are a category of chemicals that are potent antioxidants [3]. Phenolic compounds account for approximately 30% of the dry weight of green tea leaves [4]. The most prominent of these are flavanols and catechins, which are more prevalent in green tea than in black tea [5]. Matcha green tea has additionally been shown to have a high concentration of non-flavonoid polyphenols [6].

    The concentration of polyphenols in green tea is affected by both water temperature and prolonged extraction time. The highest polyphenol concentrations in matcha green tea results from brewing the tea at 80 degrees Celsius and letting the tea steep for 5 minutes [6]. The health benefiting antioxidant capacity of green tea is correlated with total phenol content.

    Health Benefits of Matcha

    A strong body of scientific research provides convincing evidence that green tea has a host of health benefits and medicinal properties [3,5,7]. These health properties derive primarily from the high levels of polyphenols and theanine in green tea, both of which are prominent in matcha green tea [6]. Theanine levels are particularly high in matcha because the camellia sinensis tea plant is put in the shade for 20 days before the leaves are harvested, protecting theanine from being broken down by photosynthesis and thereby allowing it to accumulate in the leaves.

    Oxidative Stress, Aging, & Disease

    Consuming sufficient amounts of green tea has been found to prolong life by reducing the onset of disease [8]. Oxidative stress plays a central role in the process of aging [9]. Antioxidants reduce oxidative stress by inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Green tea polyphenols are potent antioxidants [3]. Matcha green tea has among the highest levels of polyphenols when compared with other green tea preparation methods [6].

    Cancer Prevention

    Many studies have shown that both theanine and polyphenols in green tea have anti-tumor effects that can help prevent cancer [2,4,10,11,12]. The anticancer effects of these compounds are achieved in a variety of ways, with each compound providing unique benefits. These range from general reduction of oxidative stress to selective interference and inhibition of tumor cell growth.

    Cardiovascular Health

    Consumption of green tea has been found to be independently related to predictors of coronary artery disease, with people who consume more green tea per day exhibiting less negative outcomes [13]. Many studies collectively suggest that polyphenols, especially flavonol compounds and catechins, play an essential role in these beneficial effects[14,15]. A recent meta-analysis found that across 14 studies, consumption of green tea polyphenols significantly lowers total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels [16].

    Protection of Central Nervous System

    Theanine and polyphenols in green tea have been found to have neuroprotective effects, which derive from their ability to reduce oxidative stress and neurotoxin-induced neurotoxicity [2,17]. Theanine has also been reported to provide neuroprotective effects through its regulatory action on glutamate receptors [18,19], a prevalent neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. These beneficial effects have been suggested to protect against Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease-related neurotoxin damage [2].

    Healthy Skin

    There have been many studies conducted on the benefits of green tea for the skin. When applied topically (onto the skin itself), green tea polyphenols have been shown to provide protection against damages caused by UVA and UVB exposure in the sun, which inhibits cancer development and slows aging of the skin [20]. After enjoying a cup of matcha green tea, pour the remnants from the cup onto your hands and apply the green tea to your face and limbs to maximize the health benefits!

    References

    1. Cooper, R. (2012). Green tea and theanine: Health benefits. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 63(S1), 90 - 97. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131288
    2. Liang, Y-R., Liu, C., Xiang, L-P., & Zheng, X-Q. (2015). Health benefits of theanine in green tea: A review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 14(10), 1943 - 1949. http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?pr15254
    3. Chacko, S. M., Thambi, P. T., Kuttan, R., & Nishigaki, I. (2010). Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine., 5(13), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2855614/
    4. Mukhat, H., & Ahmad, N. (2000). Tea polyphenols: Prevention of cancer and optimizing health. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1698S - 1702S. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10837321
    5. Cabrera, C., Artacho, R., & Gimenez, R. (2006). Beneficial effects of green tea: A review. J Am Coll Nutr., 25(2), 79 - 99. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16582024
    6. Komes, D., Horzic, D., Belscak, A., Ganic, K. K., & Vulic, I. (2010). Green tea preparation and its influence on the content of bioactive compounds. Food Research International, 43, 167 - 176. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996909002877
    7. Chen, Z-M., & Lin, Z. (2015). Tea and human health: Biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B., 16(2), 87 - 102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322420/
    8. Nakachi, K., Euguchi, H., & Imai, K. (2003). Can teatime increase one’s lifetime? Ageing Res Rev., 2(1), 1 - 10. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163702000478
    9. Johnson, F. B., Sinclair, D. A., & Guarente, L. (1999). Molecular biology of aging. Cell, 96, 291 - 302. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286740080567X
    10. Cooper, R., Morre, D. J., & Morre, D. M. (2005). Medicinal benefits of green tea: part II. Review of anticancer properties. J Alternative Complement Med, 11, 639 - 652. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131288
    11. Fujiki, H. (2005). Green tea: Health benefits as cancer preventive for humans. Chem Rec., 5(3), 119 - 132. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889414
    12. Liu, J., Xing, J., & Fei, Y. (2008). Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and cancer prevention: A systematic review of randomized trials and epidemiological studies. Chinese Medicine, 3(12). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2577676/
    13. Sano, J., Inami, S., Seimiya, K., Ohba, T., Sakai, S., Takano, T., & Mizuno, K. (2004). Effects of green tea intake on the development of coronary artery disease. Circ J., 68(7), 665 - 670. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15226633
    14. McKay, D. L., & Blumberg, J. B. (2002). The role of tea in human health: An update. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 21(1), 1 - 13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11838881
    15. Velayutham, P., Babu, A., & Liu, D. (2008). Green tea catechins and cardiovascular health: An update. Curr Med Chem, 15(18), 1840 - 1850. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748751/
    16. Zheng, X. X., Xu, Y. L., Li, S. H., Liu, X. X., Hui, R., & Huang, X. H. (2011). Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: A meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr., 94(2), 601 - 610. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715508
    17. Cho, H. S., Kim, S., Lee, S. Y., Park, J. A., Kim, S. J., Chun, H. S. (2008). Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal death. Neurotoxicology, 29, 656 - 662. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452993
    18. Nagasawa, K., Aoki, H., Yasuda, E., Nagai, K., Shimohama, S., & Fujimoto, S. (2004). Possible involvement of group I mGluRs in neuroprotective effect of theanine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 320, 116 - 122. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15207710
    19. Zukhurova et al. (2013). L-theanine administration results in neuroprotection and prevents glutamate receptor agonist-mediated injury in the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Phytother Res., 27, 1282 - 1287. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097345
    20. Hsu, S. (2005). Green tea and the skin. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 52(6), 1049 - 1059. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15928624

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